Dr Doyle wrote the Student Manual and the slide presentations for this course for
EPA (subcontract to ICES) in 2003. He has presented it several times and updated the Manual most recently in 2012 .
This is a relatively advanced (Level IV) course that presumes some familiarity with combustion sources. It provides a more in-depth study than the Combustion Source Inspection course. There is an emphasis on understanding how real combustion systems work. Basic analytical relationships for fuel flow, air flow and emissions calculation are presented. Each chapter has review problems/questions.
This is a fairly technical coursse targetted to those involved with air pollution inspection, permitting, regulation or management of combustion sources. The course can be challenging for students with limited experience around combustion sources but the vast majority have found it beneficial and have passed the final exam..
Description of the various types of combustion systems
Fuel characteristics and analysis
Combustion fundamentals, quantitative relationships, premixed combustion
Formation and control of major air pollutants
In August 2009 the original EPA course was merged with a Rutgers course of similar content.
The revised course was substantially rewritten by Dr. Doyle and Chuck Solt. It provides up to date
information on emissions and emission controls from engines and turbines. In addition to accepted
NOx control methods there is a review of emerging NOx control technology.
High ambient levels of ozone have caused new standards and requirements for most major sources of nitrogen oxides. These include utility and industrial boilers, stationary gas turbines and reciprocating engines. This course starts with a review of combustion technology and the types of combustion sources, followed by a discussion of methods to reduce NOx formation by combustion modification. The operation of proven and developing back end control technologies is presented together with a general review of NOx regulation,
The course is targeted to air regulatory staff, but is also suited to environmental managers or environmental consultants from private industry
Federal and State Regulatory Requirements
NOx Formation Processes and Combustion Modifications
Low NOx Combustor Systems
Catalytic and Non-Catalytic Reduction
This course was developed in 2004 and has been presented
several times. It is not available from the EPA APTI library of courses.
This course explains how measured emissions data relates to reported
emission rates. The calculation of reported emission rates includes air dilution correction, moisture effects and conversions between different forms of emission rate such as ppm and lb/MMBtu. For example, it explains how to compare data from a wet CEM system with rules written for dry concentrations.
(1) Anyone who wants to understand the origin an rationale for the various emission calculation formulas. (2) Regulatory staff who may need to deal with emission rate rules or CEM/test data expressed in a variety of units.
Measured versus reported data
Gas volume relationships
How to work with wet and dry sample data
Compensating for varying air dilution
ppm versus lb/mmBtu
This course was first developed in early 2008 and is continually updated.
Ten presentations during the first year were primarily to government personnel
- sponsored by CenSARA, LADCO and NESCAUM.
This course is intended as an introduction and overview of human caused climate
change and associated effects. The course includes copies of the graphics used for the presentation and a summary text book with references to help students pursue further research and understanding. Most of the course focuses on the science of climate change - things we know with confidence versus areas of uncertainty. Some aspects - temperature increases and a rising ocean level - were predicted many years ago although the magnitudes and time scales are still uncertain. Other things such as the change in ocean chemistry, the speed of some changes, and the response of natural systems that amplify the effects of human greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are relatively recent discoveries.
Climate change will effect everyone and related regulation will effect people who work in most fields of environmental or energy management. Although the course was written for air regulatory staff, who normally have a significant science background, people with limited science training can follow the main points and most of the details.
The greenhouse effect and the history of climate change
Human generated greenhouse gases (GHG) and impacts
Options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions
Policies for and politics of managing GHG emissions and climate change
Within the next 15 years humans will have increased atmospheric GHG levels by more than 50% from levels that have prevailed for at least a million years. Substantial further increases are virtually certain. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and methane will drive changes in the climate and biology of the planet that will inexorably follow the laws of nature (physics, chemistry, biology, etc). Will the resulting climate mirror that of the warmer, ice free earth that existed long ago? How will plant and animal species respond? Science is gradually filling in a picture of our future planet. But the future scenario depends on both the GHG already emitted and on the amounts of GHG we emit in coming decades - future emissions depend on the action, or inaction, of governments and society as a whole. We live at a pivotal time when the collective actions of three or four generations of humans will establish the climactic character of the earth for thousands of future generations. Since the emerging planet may have a substantially diminished ability to support human populations, we should all be concerned.
Dr Doyle organized this course originally for Rutgers. Most of the handouts and the slide presentation are EPA documents available on the web. Dr. Doyle wrote and presents some supporting material.
Title V requires sufficient monitoring for owners to certify compliance of major sources and EPA has now promulgated regulations and guidance for the preparation of emission monitoring plans by regulated sources. The CAM rule represents a major shift from the traditional ways that stationary sources have demonstrated compliance with operation and emission standards by providing an alternative to costly continuous monitoring systems (CEM). This course covers the current regulatory status of Title V monitoring programs and presents a number of source examples. It also explains some effective (and some ineffective) monitoring options for some of the most common control devices. Students have the opportunity to evaluate specific monitoring examples.
The course is targeted at regulatory personnel involved in the writing or enforcement of Title V permits. Environmental staff at Title V regulated facilities would also benefit.
Regulatory Basis for Continuous Monitoring
Current Status of Federal Regulations and Guidance
Alternatives to CEMS
Parametric Measurements for Specific Control Devices
Certification and Credible Evidence
Dr Doyle developed this course for the Rutgers Air Compliance Center over a number of years beginning in 1990. Although the course borrowed a few elements of the old APTI 427 and 370 courses, nearly all the material is drawn from the instructors’ personal experiences and files. When compared with APTI 427 the lectures have less combustion system detail and more focus on inspection and appropriate permit conditions.
This course provides an introduction to combustion source hardware and operation. There is an emphasis on understanding how real combustion systems work. Basic analytical relationships for fuel flow, air flow and excess air are presented. Emission formation and control is discussed leading to source inspection methods and examples. When it can be arranged, the course has included a tour of a nearby combustion facility.
This is a moderately technical course targeted to those involved with air pollution inspection, permitting, regulation or management of combustion sources. An effort is made to make it understandable to inexperienced staff, but also provide useful information to the more senior inspectors and permit writers.
Combustion basics, air and fuel flow control
Fuels and fuel analysis
Overview of combustion hardware
Emission formation and control
Regulation of combustion emissions
List of Course Offerings Duration
APTI 427: Combustion Source Evaluation 3.5-4.5 days
APTI 418: NOx Emissions - Formation and Control 2-2.5 days
Emissions Calculations 1.5-2 days
CAM and Title V Monitoring 2 days
Greenhouse Gases & Climate Change 1 day
Combustion Source Inspection 2.5-3 days
Each course has a Student Manual and/or handout material that has been updated within the past five years. All courses use a PowerPoint presentation. Pre-test and final exams are available for most courses.
Presentation of these courses can be custom tailored for length and content.
Course location will be determined and arranged by the sponsoring agency that must also supply a digital projector and a dry erase board or a paper easel for supplementary discussions.
Doyle Engineering Inc will provide:
-Travel arrangements for the instructor(s)
-Copies of all handouts
-Exams, grading and reporting.
Regardless of whether a course is presented by one or two instructors, Doyle Engineering Inc will handle administrative details and provide a single itemized invoice to the sponsoring agency.